En un estudio reciente publicado en Más unolos investigadores evaluaron el impacto de la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) en el pronóstico de las infecciones por coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo materno.
Table of Contents
Las muertes maternas son marcadores sensibles del cuidado debido a los múltiples efectos sociales y económicos asociados. Las ECV son una de las principales causas indirectas de muertes maternas en todo el mundo y, según se informa, las muertes maternas han aumentado considerablemente en el escenario de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Los estudios han documentado que las enfermedades cardiovasculares aumentan el riesgo de COVID-19 grave; sin embargo, los datos sobre el impacto de las enfermedades cardiovasculares entre las mujeres que dan a luz y después del parto y el pronóstico de la COVID-19 son limitados.
Sobre el estudio
En el presente estudio, los investigadores investigaron la influencia de las ECV en el pronóstico de la COVID-19 materna.
El 5 de mayo de 2021 se buscó en la base de datos anónima del Sistema de Vigilaˆncia Epidemiolo´gica de Gripe (SIVEP-Gripe) del Ministerio de Salud los casos de COVID-19 documentados entre la semana 8 de la pandemia en 2020 (inicio de COVID-19 entre los brasileños) y la semana 15 de el año siguiente (entre el 16 de febrero de 2020 y el 17 de abril de 2021).
El estudio comprendió mujeres embarazadas y puérperas, con edades entre 10 años y 55 años, con hospitalizaciones asociadas a COVID-19, y se obtuvieron datos sobre su estado de enfermedad cardiovascular. Los casos confirmados de COVID-19 incluyeron personas con informes de laboratorio positivos para SARS-CoV-2, [polymerase chain reaction (PCR), SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing or serological testing), individuals for whom COVID-19 was highly suspected, and individuals with compatible clinic patients who contacted a COVID-19 case.
CVD cases, excluding those caused by nephrological and neurological causes, were considered, based on which the participants were allocated to the cardiovascular disease and non-cardiovascular disease groups. Variables evaluated included the symptom onset date, age, ethnicity, educational level, pregnancy period, risk factors, comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, orotracheal intubation, ventilation support, and COVID-19 outcomes.
Comorbidities such as hepatic illness, hemopathy, diabetes, asthma, pneumopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, obesity, and immunodepression were evaluated. The team performed logistic regression modeling and determined the odds ratios (OR). Propensity score matching was performed using the inverse probability of treatment weighting method to create balanced study groups.
A total of 1,876,953 COVID-19 cases were reported, including 3,562.0 confirmed COVID-19 cases among expecting and postnatal women, among which 17% (n=602) women suffered from cardiovascular disease. In comparison to non-CVD patients, CVD patients were older (35 years versus 30 years) with a greater incidence of obesity (23% versus 9.0%) and diabetes (34% versus 11%).
Systemic symptoms and systemic COVID-19 symptoms such as fever (62% versus 56%), cough (75% versus 66%), ageusia (26% versus 18%), and anosmia (26% versus 19%) showed greater prevalence among CVD patients. In addition, CVD patients showed greater risks of dyspnea (OR 1.6), respiratory discomfort (OR 1.3), and oxygen saturation <95.0% (OR 1.6).
A 22.0% greater risk of ICU admissions was observed among CDV patients (OR 1.2), and the risk was greater during the first trimester (OR 1.9) and second trimester (OR 1.3) of pregnancy and the puerperium (OR 1.3). CVD presence increased the risk of mechanical ventilation and orotracheal intubation requirements during the final trimester of pregnancy (OR 1.3).
CVD patients had greater mortality rates (19% versus 14%), and a 32% greater risk of mortality (OR 1.3), and the risk of death was greater during the second trimester (OR 1.9) and third trimester (OR 1.3) of pregnancy, and during the puerperium period (OR 1.3). The proportion of deaths among CVD patients showed a rising trend from August 2020 onward, stabilizing at greater levels during March 2021 and April of the same year.
The absolute COVID-19 case counts elevated among individuals with and without cardiovascular disease between March and May of 2020, showing elevated levels till July, followed by a drop from August to October followed by a subsequent increase till March of 2021. Considering the initial COVID-19 period between March and October of 2020, mean COVID-19 growth rates of 11% and 23% were observed for CVD patients and non-CVD patients, respectively.
During the subsequent COVID-19 wave, between October of 2020 and April of the following year, the corresponding mean COVID-19 growth rates were 37.0% and 30.0%, respectively. The findings indicated that during the subsequent COVID-19 wave, SARS-CoV-2 transmission was high among cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular patients compared to the initial COVID-19 wave and, particularly, SARS-CoV-2 spread more aggressively among CVD patients, for whom the contamination rates were greater.
Overall, the study findings showed that cardiovascular disease worsened the prognosis of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections. Obstetric and hospitalized females with cardiovascular disease and SARS-CoV-2 infections presented with more symptoms and required ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. Additionally, CVD patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 had greater mortality rates than non-CVD patients. However, further research is required to identify key risk factors, analyze CVD etiology independently, enable the provision of improved care services, and reduce maternal deaths.